Jainism (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/), traditionally known as Jain dharma, is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇatradition. The central tenet is non-violence and love towards all living beings. Parasparopagraho Jivanam ("the function of souls is to help one another") is the motto of Jainism. The three main principles of Jainism are ahimsa (non-violence), anekantavada (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa (non-violence), satya (not lying), asteya (not stealing), brahmacharya(chastity), and aparigraha (non-attachment). Jain monks and nuns observe these vows absolutely whereas householders (śrāvakas) observe them within their practical limitations. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism. Notably, Mahatma Gandhiwas greatly influenced by Jainism and adopted many Jain principles in his life.The word "Jain" derives from the Sanskrit word jina (conqueror). A human being who has conquered all inner passions like attachment, desire, anger, pride, greed, etc. is called Jina. Followers of the path practiced and preached by the jinas are known as Jains.
Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four teachers and revivers of the Jain path known as tirthankars. In the current era, this started with Rishabhdev and concluded with Mahavir. Jains believe that Jainism is eternal and while it may be forgotten, it will be revived from time to time.
The majority of Jains reside in India. With 4–6 million followers, Jainism is smaller than many other major world religions. Outside of India, some of the largest Jain communities are found in the United States, Europe, Kenya, and Canada. Contemporary Jainism is divided into two major sects, Digambara and Śvētāmbara.
Namokar Mantra is the basic and most common prayer in Jainism. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, and Diwali.