I wanted to let you know that mother is home today and under the care of home health care services. She is doing much better. She began to improved Thursday. We settled her in at her home yesterday.
She is expected to fully recover with some adjustments to her heart medications. She fell ill with, what we can only guess, a virus. However it was discovered that there are things going on with her heart rate that could cause serious problems. We never know what will come out of a rough spot in the road. All in all, things could not have worked out any better.
I appreciate all of you guys so very much. I thank you for your prayers. My mother thanks you for your prayers and your loving support. She, too, has found a family of friends among our DBSA understanding family.
Love and prayers,
Sent from my iPad
My mother was hospitalized
state Director as author
The divine is the sea. All religions are rivers leading to the sea. Some rivers wind a great deal. Why not go to the sea directly?
~ Mother Meera
The Murphy bottom lines
When you strip away all the fancy words and the tons and tons of rhettoric about what the Murphy Bill says and simply ask yourself "What is the plan?" you get a few core ideas. What does Rep. Murphy think we actually need to do to serve the severely mentally ill? There are many other provisions of the bill that has nothing to do with what I am about to talk about. Many of them are the most positive features of the bill. But this is what I think the essence of the Murphy plan is. These are his bottom lines. These are his "new ideas."
He believes, in effect, that many of the severely mentally ill suffer from a defiency of psychiatric hospitalization. He seems to see that as the answer to so many people with "mental illness" being in jails and prisons. He thinks that way too many hospital beds are gone and it is time to increase hospitalization radically.
Perhaps I am wrong but I believe that ship has sailed. A mental health system with psychiatric hospitalization as its corner stone is not financially sustainable in this country. Insurance companies pay less and less for it. They do not see it as medically necessary but in the most extreme circumstances and then for brief periods of time. In Tennessee I believe most psychiatric hospitals are struggling to break even and most of them are losing that struggle. States are getting out of the business. They realize that a large hospital system leaves them unable to finance a community system and if you dont have a community system to serve the people coming out of the hospital what is the point of the hospital. If you look at how often and how quickly people leaving the hospital system end up back there you begin to realize the impact of disemboweling the community system. I cant even imagine the circumstances under which Tennessee would act to increase the beds in any kind of dramatic way, indeed in any way at all. It is far too little bang for way too many bucks.
His method for making psychiatric hospitalization possible is to remove the IMD exclusion on medicaid funding. Basically it makes it possible for medicaid to then pay for state psychiatric hospitals. One question comes to me immediately. If Congressman Murphy thinks that medicaid funding is such an important part of mental health reform why did he vote to repeal the ACA over 50 times? That bill through its provisions for medicaid expansion would have given millions of people with "mental illness" access to programs and services that if he has his way they will never access.
A couple of other questions come to mind. What about the people who dont have medicaid access? Many people with "mental illness" and particularly many people who are having serious problems in life simply dont have insurance. Another question is the response of states to finding out now that medicaid funds can pay for psychiatric hospitals. In most states that I am aware the medicaid program eats up a considerable portion of their state budget and I really question, particularly in the states that choose not to expand medicaid, how receptive they will be to finding out that medicaid expenses are about to soar through the roof. In Tennessee the most likely two responses are to adopt the private insurance definitions of medical necessity and decide not that many people need hospitalizations and/or cut benefits and provider payments to pay for any any expenses the increase in hospitalization is likely to cause. The provider rates for psychiatric care, at least in Tennessee, are so low that very few people will even provide services anyway and there is a serious real question about where the professionals to do all this treatment are to come from.
Even if you start to use medicaid funding it does not begin to pay for all the new costs. The state institutions in Tennessee for example are aging. There is a need for new buildings and new spaces if beds are added. Who pays for new hospitals?? What about the cost of new staff?? Who pays? I can only speak to Tennessee but there is no commitment to psychiatric hospitalization, especially on a massive scale, as the answer to anything by state officials, by mental health professionals. by anyone that I know and removing the IMD exclusion is unlikely to change that. The strong perception is that the community system is the most cost effective and effective means to help people meet their needs and that it is defiencies in that system that lead most to people falling through the cracks.
And even if it was possible would it work?? I know of no evidence, that other than providing a place for stabilization, that psychiatric hospitals work in any enduring fashion. They dont, if you look at return rates, even work well enough to keep people out of psychiatric hospitals.
I dont know but would be willing to hazard a guess that many of the "mentally ill" in the prisons and jails have had considerable psychiatric experience with little or no solid gains. Criminal behavior is not a symptom of mental illness and the "put them in the hospital" solution ignores things like poverty, drug addiction, racism, lack of work, homelessness and history of trauma and other adverse events that lead to someone actually committing criminal acts. The other thing to consider is not the degree to which "mental illness" causes criminal behavior but the extent to which incarceration causes "mental illness." Is treatment needed?? Are mental health resources needed and might for some people those resources be inpatient resources??? Of course. I wonder what percent of those people in jail would even meet the criteria for hospitalization?? I dont know the answers but tend to believe it is the lack of effective and accessible community resources that engender emotional involvement with the people they serve that is the root of the great numbers of "mentally ill" in jails and prisons.
Another core point of Murphy is that he believes that too many people get mental health services and that it is the "worried well " that are basically stealing resources that are better used by the severely mentally ill. Given the fact that most mental health systems have been starved and cut back over the last few years it seems a little like telling one person eating bread and water that the the person next to him is eating too much bread and water and not considering that the problem is the diet of bread and water. It is an argument of little integrity that resorts to an us vs. them argument as a pseudo explanation. It ignores totally the fact that state legislature after state legislature has sacrificed their mental health system on the fires of "financial responsibility" over the last few years.
There are without question people who are victims of a psychiatric system eager to diagnose every event in life as an enotional illness. There is a reason that pharmaceutical companies make money. But there are also people who struggle every day with serious mental health issues, trauma, and distress and to dismiss those people as dupes or malingers is stupid, dishonest and evil. If you think the biggest problem in the mental health system is that too many people need or are seeking help then you are a simple minded person not worthy of being taken seriously.
If you take the notion of "worried well" seriously it takes you to some strange places. How do you decide who is "worried well"? Who decides? Based on what criteria? What do you do to the "worried well"? Do you limit their access to services? How? How much and why? If you dont limit their access to services arent you being complicit in the people who need help being hurt?? And how much is all this going to cost?? Do we need programs to make sure that people who need services get them and another program to make sure those that dont are kept out. This is a treacherous notion that if you take serious leads to nightmares.
Another core notion is making assisted outpatient treatment a law in every state. They tell you that aot is a major problem solver but dont really explain why most of the 45 states that have it dont really use it. And they dont really explain why you need to make something a federal law that is already a state law. And they dont really explain why if 45 states can choose to have it 5 states cant.
I think the truth is that most states who are not willing to throw $32 million a year at it like New York find it more irrelevant than anything. It costs too much and does too little and in an environment of increasingly limited resources is not something that a lot of people are going to turn to to solve many things. And none of this even begins to touch on the questions of choice and coercion that so many people find so fundamentally troubling.
Another core notion of the Murphy Bill is that too many people complain about the human rights of people in the system being important and those people need to be quiet. It would basically eviscerate the protection and advocacy programs like Paimi and legislate away their voice. The idea that people in the system dont need protection is naive and self serving and something you might figure a psychologist or psychiatrist might come up with. Ask anybody in the system. See how safe they feel in the system.
The final key element is to do away with the notion of recovery and the best way to do that is to cut the legs out from under Samsha. Samsha is as close to a boogeyman as there is in this play. They are blamed for everything bad that has happened or will happened. The fact that thousands of people have found recovery to be a real thing is explained away by saying they probably didnt need help anyway or that they are in a remission that would have happened anyway regardless of what they did. If you dont like what you see it works really well to convince yourself that it was really something else.
Samsha is blamed for many things it doesnt decide about. The state of Tennessee decides what kind of services it will offer the people it serves....not Samsha.
Like I said at the start there is more to the Murphy Bill than what I have described here. He took a lot of peoples good ideas and made them part of his bill. None of them seem though to be core elements that define the bill and that is a shame. He has told people he will work with them on a better bill but no one knows what that means because he has compromised on nothing. I have been told by a lot of people I know that is bill is in trouble and very unlikely to be passed as written. I dont know how true that is, but know it is in everybodies best interest to know the bottom lines of what he proposes and decide what that means for them and the way they would like to see the mental health system change.
hopeworkscommunity | May 16, 2014
What is borderline personality disorder?Borderline personality disorder is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) listed borderline personality disorder as a diagnosable illness for the first time. Most psychiatrists and other mental health professionals use the DSM to diagnose mental illnesses.
Because some people with severe borderline personality disorder have brief psychotic episodes, experts originally thought of this illness as atypical, or borderline, versions of other mental disorders.1 While mental health experts now generally agree that the name "borderline personality disorder" is misleading, a more accurate term does not exist yet.
Most people who have borderline personality disorder suffer from:
According to data from a subsample of participants in a national survey on mental disorders, about 1.6 percent of adults in the United States have borderline personality disorder in a given year.2
Borderline personality disorder is often viewed as difficult to treat. However, recent research shows that borderline personality disorder can be treated effectively, and that many people with this illness improve over time.1,3,4
What are the symptoms of borderline personality disorder?According to the DSM, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must show an enduring pattern of behavior that includes at least five of the following symptoms:
Suicide and Self-harmSelf-injurious behavior includes suicide and suicide attempts, as well as self-harming behaviors, described below. As many as 80 percent of people with borderline personality disorder have suicidal behaviors,7 and about 4 to 9 percent commit suicide.4,7
Suicide is one of the most tragic outcomes of any mental illness. Some treatments can help reduce suicidal behaviors in people with borderline personality disorder. For example, one study showed that dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) reduced suicide attempts in women by half compared with other types of psychotherapy, or talk therapy. DBT also reduced use of emergency room and inpatient services and retained more participants in therapy, compared to other approaches to treatment.7 For more information about DBT, see the section, "How is borderline personality disorder treated?"
Unlike suicide attempts, self-harming behaviors do not stem from a desire to die. However, some self-harming behaviors may be life threatening. Self-harming behaviors linked with borderline personality disorder include cutting, burning, hitting, head banging, hair pulling, and other harmful acts. People with borderline personality disorder may self-harm to help regulate their emotions, to punish themselves, or to express their pain.8 They do not always see these behaviors as harmful.
When does borderline personality disorder start?Borderline personality disorder usually begins during adolescence or early adulthood.1,9 Some studies suggest that early symptoms of the illness may occur during childhood.10,11
Some people with borderline personality disorder experience severe symptoms and require intensive, often inpatient, care. Others may use some outpatient treatments but never need hospitalization or emergency care. Some people who develop this disorder may improve without any treatment.12
Studies suggest early symptoms may occur in childhood
What illnesses often co-exist with borderline personality disorder?Borderline personality disorder often occurs with other illnesses. These co-occurring disorders can make it harder to diagnose and treat borderline personality disorder, especially if symptoms of other illnesses overlap with the symptoms of borderline personality disorder.
Women with borderline personality disorder are more likely to have co-occurring disorders such as major depression, anxiety disorders, or eating disorders. In men, borderline personality disorder is more likely to co-occur with disorders such as substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder.13
According to the NIMH-funded National Comorbidity Survey Replication—the largest national study to date of mental disorders in U.S. adults—about 85 percent of people with borderline personality disorder also meet the diagnostic criteria for another mental illness.2
Other illnesses that often occur with BPD include diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic back pain, arthritis, and fibromyalgia.14,15 These conditions are associated with obesity, which is a common side effect of the medications prescribed to treat borderline personality disorder and other mental disorders. For more information, see the section, "How is borderline personality disorder treated?"
What are the risk factors for borderline personality disorder?Research on the possible causes and risk factors for borderline personality disorder is still at a very early stage. However, scientists generally agree that genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved.
Studies on twins with borderline personality disorder suggest that the illness is strongly inherited.16,17 Another study shows that a person can inherit his or her temperament and specific personality traits, particularly impulsiveness and aggression.18 Scientists are studying genes that help regulate emotions and impulse control for possible links to the disorder.19
Social or cultural factors may increase the risk for borderline personality disorder. For example, being part of a community or culture in which unstable family relationships are common may increase a person's risk for the disorder.1 Impulsiveness, poor judgment in lifestyle choices, and other consequences of BPD may lead individuals to risky situations. Adults with borderline personality disorder are considerably more likely to be the victim of violence, including rape and other crimes.
How is borderline personality disorder diagnosed?Unfortunately, borderline personality disorder is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.20,21
A mental health professional experienced in diagnosing and treating mental disorders—such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, or psychiatric nurse—can detect borderline personality disorder based on a thorough interview and a discussion about symptoms. A careful and thorough medical exam can help rule out other possible causes of symptoms.
The mental health professional may ask about symptoms and personal and family medical histories, including any history of mental illnesses. This information can help the mental health professional decide on the best treatment. In some cases, co-occurring mental illnesses may have symptoms that overlap with borderline personality disorder, making it difficult to distinguish borderline personality disorder from other mental illnesses. For example, a person may describe feelings of depression but may not bring other symptoms to the mental health professional's attention.
No single test can diagnose borderline personality disorder. Scientists funded by NIMH are looking for ways to improve diagnosis of this disorder. One study found that adults with borderline personality disorder showed excessive emotional reactions when looking at words with unpleasant meanings, compared with healthy people. People with more severe borderline personality disorder showed a more intense emotional response than people who had less severe borderline personality disorder.6
What studies are being done to improve the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder?Recent neuroimaging studies show differences in brain structure and function between people with borderline personality disorder and people who do not have this illness.22,23 Some research suggests that brain areas involved in emotional responses become overactive in people with borderline personality disorder when they perform tasks that they perceive as negative.24 People with the disorder also show less activity in areas of the brain that help control emotions and aggressive impulses and allow people to understand the context of a situation. These findings may help explain the unstable and sometimes explosive moods characteristic of borderline personality disorder.19,25
Another study showed that, when looking at emotionally negative pictures, people with borderline personality disorder used different areas of the brain than people without the disorder. Those with the illness tended to use brain areas related to reflexive actions and alertness, which may explain the tendency to act impulsively on emotional cues.26
These findings could inform efforts to develop more specific tests to diagnose borderline personality disorder.6
How is borderline personality disorder treated?Borderline personality disorder can be treated with psychotherapy, or "talk" therapy. In some cases, a mental health professional may also recommend medications to treat specific symptoms. When a person is under more than one professional's care, it is essential for the professionals to coordinate with one another on the treatment plan.
The treatments described below are just some of the options that may be available to a person with borderline personality disorder. However, the research on treatments is still in very early stages. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these treatments, who may benefit the most, and how best to deliver treatments.
PsychotherapyPsychotherapy is usually the first treatment for people with borderline personality disorder. Current research suggests psychotherapy can relieve some symptoms, but further studies are needed to better understand how well psychotherapy works.27
It is important that people in therapy get along with and trust their therapist. The very nature of borderline personality disorder can make it difficult for people with this disorder to maintain this type of bond with their therapist.
Types of psychotherapy used to treat borderline personality disorder include the following:28
One type of group therapy, Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS), is designed as a relatively brief treatment consisting of 20 two-hour sessions led by an experienced social worker. Scientists funded by NIMH reported that STEPPS, when used with other types of treatment (medications or individual psychotherapy), can help reduce symptoms and problem behaviors of borderline personality disorder, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life.32 The effectiveness of this type of therapy has not been extensively studied.
Families of people with borderline personality disorder may also benefit from therapy. The challenges of dealing with an ill relative on a daily basis can be very stressful, and family members may unknowingly act in ways that worsen their relative's symptoms.
Some therapies, such as DBT-family skills training (DBT-FST), include family members in treatment sessions. These types of programs help families develop skills to better understand and support a relative with borderline personality disorder. Other therapies, such as Family Connections, focus on the needs of family members. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of family therapy in borderline personality disorder. Studies with other mental disorders suggest that including family members can help in a person's treatment.33
Other types of therapy not listed in this booklet may be helpful for some people with borderline personality disorder. Therapists often adapt psychotherapy to better meet a person's needs. Therapists may switch from one type of therapy to another, mix techniques from different therapies, or use a combination therapy. For more information see the NIMH website section on psychotherapy.
Some symptoms of borderline personality disorder may come and go, but the core symptoms of highly changeable moods, intense anger, and impulsiveness tend to be more persistent.34 People whose symptoms improve may continue to face issues related to co-occurring disorders, such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder.4 However, encouraging research suggests that relapse, or the recurrence of full-blown symptoms after remission, is rare. In one study, 6 percent of people with borderline personality disorder had a relapse after remission.4
MedicationsNo medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat borderline personality disorder. Only a few studies show that medications are necessary or effective for people with this illness.35 However, many people with borderline personality disorder are treated with medications in addition to psychotherapy. While medications do not cure BPD, some medications may be helpful in managing specific symptoms. For some people, medications can help reduce symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or aggression. Often, people are treated with several medications at the same time,12 but there is little evidence that this practice is necessary or effective.
Medications can cause different side effects in different people. People who have borderline personality disorder should talk with their prescribing doctor about what to expect from a particular medication.
Other TreatmentsOmega-3 fatty acids. One study done on 30 women with borderline personality disorder showed that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce symptoms of aggression and depression.36 The treatment seemed to be as well tolerated as commonly prescribed mood stabilizers and had few side effects. Fewer women who took omega-3 fatty acids dropped out of the study, compared to women who took a placebo (sugar pill).
With proper treatment, many people experience fewer or less severe symptoms. However, many factors affect the amount of time it takes for symptoms to improve, so it is important for people with borderline personality disorder to be patient and to receive appropriate support during treatment.
How can I help a friend or relative who has borderline personality disorder?If you know someone who has borderline personality disorder, it affects you too. The first and most important thing you can do is help your friend or relative get the right diagnosis and treatment. You may need to make an appointment and go with your friend or relative to see the doctor. Encourage him or her to stay in treatment or to seek different treatment if symptoms do not appear to improve with the current treatment.
To help a friend or relative you can:
How can I help myself if I have borderline personality disorder?Taking that first step to help yourself may be hard. It is important to realize that, although it may take some time, you can get better with treatment.
To help yourself:
What if I or someone I know is in crisis?If you are thinking about harming yourself, or know someone who is:
For more information on borderline personality disorderVisit the National Library of Medicine's:
For information on clinical trials
National Library of Medicine clinical trials database
Information from NIMH is available in multiple formats. You can browse online, download documents in PDF, and order materials through the mail. Check the NIHM website for the latest information on this topic and to order publications. If you do not have Internet access, please contact the NIMH Information Resource Center at the numbers listed below.
National Institute of Mental Health
Science Writing, Press & Dissemination Branch
6001 Executive Boulevard
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
Phone: 301-443-4513 or 1-866-615-NIMH (6464) toll-free
TTY: 301-443-8431 or 1-866-415-8051 toll-free
Differentiating Borderline Personality Disorder from Bipolar Disorder
By BERNADETTE GROSJEAN, MD
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder frequently co-occur (numbers range from 8% to 18%), although they are distinct clinical entities (Paris J et al, Compr Psychiatry2007;48(2):145–154). A proper diagnosis guides the most effective treatment, but you’ve probably faced the difficult challenge of diagnosing these conditions, which share several clinical features.
BPD can be described by four types of psychopathology: affective disturbance, impulsivity, cognitive problems, and intense, unstable relationships. What’s most important—in addition to seeing that your patient meets DSM-IV criteria for BPD—is to establish that patterns of affective instability, impulsivity, and unstable relationships have been consistent over time. Thus, obtaining a detailed history is crucial. Also, the key features we see in BPD, such as dissociation, paranoia, and cognitive problems, are often affected by the patient’s environment and, particularly, his or her relationships. A patient might have a history of rapid and sudden deterioration when relationships change—such as threatening suicide after a breakup or severe mood swings when separated from her family. Generally, the more intense or significant the relationship is, the greater the risk of chronic stress and mood dysregulation.
Many of the same features are seen in patients with bipolar disorder, such as dysphoria, hyperactivity, impulsivity, suicidality, and psychotic symptoms. As a result, borderline patients with this cluster of symptoms are often misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder, possibly because of the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments for such symptoms. In fact, a more thorough assessment might show that these patients actually suffer from a personality disorder. In one study, more than one third of those misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder met DSM-IV criteria for BPD (Zimmerman M et al, Compr Psychiatry2010;51(2):99–105).
In BPD, mood changes are generally short-lived, lasting only for a few hours at a time. In contrast, mood changes in bipolar disorder tend to last for days or even weeks or months. Mood shifts in BPD are usually in reaction to an environmental stressor (such as an argument with a loved one or a frustration in the waiting room), whereas mood shifts in bipolar disorder may occur out of the blue. Some clinicians consider BPD an “ultrarapid-cycling” form of bipolar disorder, but there’s little evidence to support this link (Gunderson JG et al, Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(7):1173–1178). Patients with BPD might rapidly cycle through depression, anxiety, and anger, but these mood shifts rarely involve elation; more often, the mood shifts are from feeling upset to feeling just “OK.” Likewise, the anxiety or irritability of BPD should not be mistaken for the mania or hypomania of bipolar disorder, which usually involve expansive or elevated mood.
At a more existential level, patients with BPD—particularly younger patients— often struggle with feelings of emptiness and worthlessness, difficulties with self-image, and fears of abandonment. These are less common in bipolar disorder, where grandiosity and inflated self-esteem are common, especially during mood episodes. And while both conditions may include a history of chaotic relationships, a patient with BPD may describe relationship difficulties as the primary—or sole—source of her/his suffering, while the bipolar patient may see them as an unfortunate consequence of his behavior.
A pattern of self-harm and suicidality often serves as a cue for diagnosing BPD (but are not necessarily required). But both can be seen in bipolar disorder, too. In BPD, suicide threats and attempts may occur along with anger at perceived abandonment and disappointment. Patients often explain these impulses as a way to be relieved of pain, or to “stop their thinking,” more so than to end their lives, per se. Patients with BPD may experience “micropsychotic” phenomena of short duration (lasting hours or at most a few days), including auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and episodes of depersonalization. However, patients generally retain insight, and can acknowledge that “something strange is happening” without strong delusional thought. When psychotic symptoms occur in bipolar disorder, they happen in the context of a mood episode, they tend to last longer, and patients may be unable to reflect on their behavior.
Accurate diagnosis of BPD and bipolar disorder can be difficult, but it’s essential for proper treatment and optimal outcome. Remission rates in BPD can be as high as 85% in 10 years (Gunderson et al, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68(8):827–837), particularly with effective psychotherapeutic treatments (Zanarini MC, Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;120(5):373– 377). Unfortunately, such treatment is not always available. Some medications can be used in BPD, such as an SSRI for impulsivity, severe and persistent depression and/or suicidality, or an atypical antipsychotic for recurrent dissociative symptoms or disinhibition. However the only consensus seems to be that medications should be used as adjuncts to psychotherapy (Silk KR, J Psychiatric Practice 2011;17(5):311–319). The long-term use of a mood stabilizer or atypical should be reserved for known cases of bipolar disorder.
TCPR’s VERDICT: Clinicians sometimes think of a BPD diagnosis as pejorative (chronic and untreatable) and may be reluctant to disclose it, but patients and their families often find it helpful to be informed of the diagnosis. Similarly with bipolar disorder, accurate diagnosis often determines prognosis and effective treatment. For the clinician, however, it’s imperative that you make the proper diagnosis in these two often overlapping, but fundamentally quite distinct, conditions in order to optimize your patients’ outcomes.
DBSA PSA on Depression